Different Types of Filtration Methods

We can’t ignore the importance of purification and filtration in our lives. Different materials like water, chemicals, and food items have to pass through the filtration processes as they contain minerals, chemicals, poisons, etc.

For example, some impurities may contaminate the water and make it undrinkable, or that water will become unsuitable to use at the industrial level for different purposes. So filtration is required at all levels. Even from drinking water at home scale to useable water at the industrial level.


The process of removing contaminants from fluids and liquids is called Filteration. This process is adopted to eliminate undesired oil, vapors, fluids, or other impurities from liquids.

Filteration methods are considered very beneficial in cleari9ng impurities that may be in the form of liquids, solids, or gases. Different filtration methods and techniques will be adopted, and we will mention the most effective filtration techniques.

Types of Filtration Techniques

Mainly, Filteration is regarded as removing unwanted solid suspended particles in liquids, But sometimes impurities may be in the form of liquids or fluids. Like if you want to remove oil from water, then they both are in liquid forms. Here you also required a filtration technique but with some different features. Highly efficient and sophisticated filtration processes are being utilized to remove pure liquids or water from impurities.

Powerful filtration techniques.

Here we are going to mention different filter action techniques that are used for different kinds of filtration processes in laboratories, homes, offices, and industries.

Gravity Filtration

The most widely utilized form of filtration is Gravity Filtration, which is quite simple and used in laboratories. The process of filtration through this filtration technique includes placing a filter paper inside the funnel, and then it is fixed using an iron ring. Then, the liquid required to get filtered is poured inside the funnel. Solid impurities that have a larger size than the impurities of a filter paper will remain in tin filter paper, and the liquid will pass through the funnel and be collected in a beaker in pure form. Here, gravity is involved and allows fluid to travel downwards in a beaker, so this method is known as the Gravity Filtration technique.

The vacuum filtration process is somehow similar to the process of gravity filtration. In this process, you will also require a filter paper with a funnel that will be attached to it, and then the liquid will be allowed to transfer through the paper. The only difference here is that you will require a Buchner flask In which you collect the filtrate. Along with the flask, you will also need a vacuum line to attach to it by using the tube.

Centrifugal filtration

 In this filtration technique, the phenomena of centrifugal force are utilized in performing filtration. Centrifugal force is the force of inertia that an object observes when it moves in a circular path. This keeps the object away from the earth’s center due to its force. The apparatus of this filtration technique includes a rotating drum in which liquid is added to two pumps. There, force is generated due to rapid rotations, solid impurities will be migrated opposite to the center and will be trapped onto the walls of the drum, and liquid is pushed out.

 Hot filtration

 This filtration method will be suitable for the elements that can be crystallized. As if crystals will grow, they can block the filtration process by blocking the funnel. So for such kinds of elements, it is necessary to raise the temperature during the filtration process so that no crystal formation occurs. The whole procedure is carried out quickly so that it will not allow impurities to crystallize. In this procedure, a buffered filtration stemless funnel and fluted filter paper are recommended.

Cold filtration

As shown by the name, this procedure of filtration technique is quite the opposite of the hot filtration process. This procedure goes down so quickly to expedite crystal formation that can be separated to get pure liquid. This method is used at the industrial level to form clumps of protein that can be removed easily.

 Granular media filtration

This is a traditional filtration technique that has been used for ages. This is a simple procedure in which a liquid is allowed to pass through the bottom of granular media that can be gravel, sand, carbon, etc. Suspended solid particles will be trapped in media, and you will get a pure filtrate. This filtration technique is mainly used in wastewater treatment in plants at the early stages.

Mechanical filtration

A mechanical filtration is a modern approach to filtration technique that is now widely used at the industrial level. Fluid is forced through the filter element so that suspended solids can be separated and removed easily from fluids. The pumping force will be created by line pressure or a pump source. Filter elements that are commonly used for this mechanical filtration process at the industrial level are cartridges filter, filter pads, sintered elements of metal, filter cloth, etc.

Multilayer filtration

The Multilayer Filtration technique refers to several layers of different kinds of material that include gravel, charcoal, sand or carbon, etc. These different layers have various sizes of particles of materials. This technique is considered a highly efficient filtration technique. The mixture of fluids and suspended solid particles is poured into different layers, and suspended particles are caught through different layers. You will get a pure filtered liquid.

The function of different filtration techniques

Filteration techniques are widely used for multiple purposes and different places, including cleaning water and removing impurities from river water. You can also use these methods on different scales to sterilize water. Most filtration processes don’t kill microorganisms, not just make water pure from solubility. However hot filtration process may kill the germs.

Frequently asked questions

Which Filtration technique is considered the Traditional method?

Granular media filtration is considered to be the traditional filtration technique that has been used for ages. This is a simple process in which granular media is used to pass a liquid through it.

Why is the Multilayer Filtration technique considered the best filtration process?

This Multilayer Filtration technique is considered a highly efficient technique, as it offers the best pure fluids in the result after passing through several layers.

Can different types of filtration techniques be used to kill microorganisms?

Most of the filtration processes are just adopted to remove solid suspended particles from the fluids. However, in the hot filtration process, microorganisms and germs can be killed by heating the fluid.

What kind of material layers are used in Multilayer filtration?

In this simple, efficient filtration process, several layers of different kinds of material include gravel, charcoal, sand or carbon, etc.


These days, filtration techniques are commonly used on a home scale and on a commercial level. These methods made the consumption of water and other liquids fast and easy. Different industries are using these techniques according to their requirements. These methods make water harmless and decrease the chances of diseases and damage caused by impure water. However, some filtration techniques are not applicable on a commercial scale. Different methods along with the specifications have been mentioned; you can choose according to your requirement and can utilize them to get pure liquids.

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